The motor neurophysiology lab studies the extrapyramidal motor system in human subjects with an emphasis on disease states and neurosurgical therapies. The lab's current focus is on the basal ganglia (BG) and on Parkinson's disease (PD) with most of the work centered on deep brain stimulation (DBS). DBS is used as a tool to understand BG physiology and, especially, PD pathophysiology; in addition, DBS therapeutic mechanisms are a major subject of investigation in their own right. The research has a strong translational slant aimed at developing improved approaches to DBS and neuromodulation. The motor neurophysiology lab is part of the U of M neuromodulation research group, a tightly-knit cluster of researchers including neurologists, neurosurgeons, neurophysiologists, neuroimaging specialists, and bioengineers.